The data in these Tables are taken from References 1-4. Reference 4 defines ‘threat’ as: ‘an indication of an impending danger or harm to the system, which may have an adverse influence on the integrity of the system.

Threat Category Threats listed in

ASME B31.8S: 2014

(onshore pipelines carrying gas)

Threats listed in

API 1160: 2013

(pipelines carrying liquids)

Time dependent External corrosion External corrosion
Internal corrosion Internal corrosion
Selective seam corrosion (external or internal)
Stress corrosion cracking Stress corrosion cracking
The growth of an initially non-injurious anomaly arising from any threat, leading to an injurious defect, via pressure-cycle-induced fatigue (including transit fatigue)
Stable Defective pipe seam Defective pipe seam
Defective pipe Defective pipe
Defective pipe girth weld Defective pipe girth weld
Defective fabrication weld Defective fabrication weld
Wrinkle bend or buckle Wrinkle bend or buckle
Stripped threads/broken pipe/coupling Stripped threads/broken pipe/coupling
Gasket O-ring failure Gasket O-ring failure
Control/relief equipment malfunction Control/relief equipment malfunction
Seal/pump packing failure Seal/pump packing failure
Miscellaneous equipment failures Miscellaneous equipment failures (failure of valve or other component)
Time independent Third-party/mechanical damage – damage inflicted by first, second, or third parties (instantaneous/immediate failure) Third-party/mechanical damage – damage inflicted by first, second, or third parties instantaneous/immediate failure)
Third-party/mechanical damage – previously damaged pipe (such as dents and/or gouges) (delayed failure mode) Third-party/mechanical damage – previously damaged pipe (such as dents and/or gouges) (delayed failure mode)
Third-party/mechanical damage – vandalism Third-party/mechanical damage – vandalism
Incorrect operational procedure Incorrect operational procedure
Weather-related and outside force – cold weather Weather-related and outside force – cold weather
Weather-related and outside force – lightning Weather-related and outside force – lightning
Weather-related and outside force – heavy rains or floods Weather-related and outside force- heavy rains or floods
Weather-related and outside force – earth movements Weather-related and outside force – earth movements
Unknown Unknown Unknown
Interaction Interaction of any of the above threats

Table 1: Pipeline Threats from ASME [1] and API [2].

Threat Category

(from DNV RP F116 or PD 8010-4)

Threats listed in

BSI PD 8010-4:2012

(pipelines on land and subsea)

Threats listed in

DNV RP F116: 2015

(subsea pipelines)

Corrosion/erosion External corrosion – crevice corrosion External corrosion
External corrosion – galvanic corrosion
External corrosion – soil corrosion
External corrosion – A.C. corrosion
External corrosion – D.C. stray current corrosion
External corrosion – atmospheric corrosion
External corrosion – corrosion under insulation
External corrosion – MIC
Internal corrosion – H2S corrosion Internal corrosion
Internal corrosion – MIC
Internal corrosion – CO2 corrosion
Internal corrosion – O2 corrosion
Internal corrosion – Erosion Erosion
Environmentally assisted cracking Environmentally-induced cracking – hydrogen-induced
Environmentally-induced cracking – stress corrosion cracking
Third party threats/mechanical damage Mechanical damage – third party impact Traffic (vehicle impact, vibrations)
Trawling interference
Vessel impact
Anchoring
Mechanical damage – dropped objects Dropped objects
Mechanical damage – sabotage Vandalism / terrorism
Mechanical damage – unauthorized hot taps
Other mechanical impact
Structural Global buckling (exposed)
Global buckling (buried)
End expansion
On-bottom stability
Static overload
Natural hazard Earthquakes Earthquakes
Landslides Landslides
Extreme weather
Ice loads
Significant temperature variations
Floods
Lightning
River crossing scour
Incorrect operational issues Operational issues – incorrect operation Incorrect procedures
Procedures not implemented
Human errors
Internal protection system related
Interface component related
Operational issues – blockage/freezing
Design/fabrication/installation/ materials threats Design and materials – pipe body defects Design errors
Design and materials – seam weld defects Fabrication related
Construction – girth weld defects Installation related
Construction – damage e.g., dents, gouges
Equipment failure Equipment failure – valve
Equipment failure – flange
Equipment failure – pig launcher/receiver
Fatigue/structural Pressure cycling Fatigue (VIV, flow induced vibrations, waves, or process variations)
Thermal cycling
Cyclic external loading
Vortex-induced vibration (VIV)

Table 2: Pipeline Threats from BSI [3] and DNV [4].

  1. Anon., ‘Managing System Integrity of Gas Pipelines’, ASME B31.8S-2014. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. New York, USA. 2014.
  2. Anon., ‘Managing System Integrity for Hazardous Liquid Pipelines’, American Petroleum Institute. API Recommended Practice 1160. Second Edition. September, 2013.
  3. Anon., ‘Pipeline systems Part 4: Steel pipelines on land and subsea pipelines – Code of practice for integrity management’, BSI PD 8010-4:2012. British Standards Institution. UK. 2012.
  4. Anon., ‘Integrity Management of Submarine Pipeline Systems’, Recommended Practice. DNV-RP-F116. Det Norske Veritas. Norway. October 2017.